Ventilation Filter Efficiency for Birch Pollen Allergens
|Forfattere||Magnus Mattsson, Lars T Andersson, Kerstin Alm Kübler, Agneta Ekebom, Anders Jansson, Leif Holmquist, Olof Vesterberg|
|Nøkkelord||pollen grains, pollen allergens, filters, filtration, particles|
|Redaktør||Vojislav Novakovic, Sten Olaf Hanssen, Hans Martin Mathisen|
AbstraktIn an experimental study, ventilation filters of high quality (F7 and F9) were tested regarding their efficiency in collecting birch pollen allergens in outdoor air. The birch pollen grain concentration in outdoor air was measured at the same time as pollen allergen and particle number concentrations were measured before and after the tested ventilation filters, thus enabling collection efficiency calculations. Simultaneously, the size distribution of birch pollen allergens was measured in outdoor air using a cascade impactor. The study confirms previous indications that pollen allergens occur in outdoor air in particles much smaller than pollen grains, and can penetrate ventilation filters to a larger extent than might be expected. This entails that although the high quality filters collect most of outdoor air pollen allergens, a significant exposure dose to these allergens can occur in the indoor environment, especially when considering the fact most people stay much more indoors than outdoors. The study also confirms previous similar indications attained with grass pollen allergens, in that the allergenic particles tend to penetrate ventilation filters to a greater extent than other airborne particles.
ReferanserButers JTM, Kasche A, Weichenmeier I, Schober W, Klaus S, Traidl-Hoffman C, Menzel A, Huss-Marp J, Krämer U, Behrendt H. 2008. Year-to-year variation in release of Bet v 1 allergen from birch pollen: Evidence for geographical differences between west and south Germany. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 145:122-130.
Ekberg L.E, Kvernes M, Gustén J., and Strindehag O. 2000. Removal of pollen allergens by ventilation air filters, Proceedings of the Healthy Buildings 2000 Conference, vol 2. pp 67-72. Helsinki, Finland.
Holmquist L, Vesterberg O. 1999 a. Quantification of birch and grass pollen allergens in indoor air. Indoor Air 9(2):85-91
Holmquist L, Vesterberg O. 1999 b. Luminescence immunoassay of pollen allergens on air sampling polytetrafluoroethylene filters. J Biochem Biophys Methods; 41:49-60.
Holmquist L, Ekebom A, Alm Kübler K, Vesterberg O. 2005. Airborne birch and oak pollen allergens at a common sampling station in Stockholm. Grana. Volume 44, Issue 2, June, pp 104-107.
Kvernes M. 2003. Pollen och pollenallergen i innemiljön; metodik för och resultat av laboratorie- och fältmätningar med tonvikt på partikelfilters funktion. Lic. dissertation. (in Swedish) Doc. D 2003:2. Inst Installationsteknik. Chalmers university of technology. Gothenburg. Sweden.
Mattsson M, Andersson L T, Jansson A, Holmquist L, Vesterberg O, Alm Kübler K, Ekebom A. 2008. Birch and grass pollen allergens in filtered office indoor air. Proc. The 11th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (Indoor Air), 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark. Paper ID: 557. ISBN 9788778772701.
Mattsson, M., Andersson, L., Jansson, A., Holmquist, L., Vesterberg, O., Alm Kübler, K. & Ekebom, A. 2009. Ventilation filter efficiency for particles and grass pollen allergens. 9th International Conference Healthy Buildings 2009, Paper No: 460. Syracuse, NY, USA. Eds.: Santanam, S., Bogucz, E.A., Peters, C., and Benson, T. Syracuse, USA. Syracuse Center of Excellence in Environmental and Energy Systems.
Rantio-Lehtimäki A, Viander M, Koivikko A. 1994. Airborne birch pollen antigens in different particle sizes. Clin Exp Allergy;24(1):23-8.
Raynor P. C., Kim B. G., Ramachandran G., Strommen M. R., Horns J. H., Streifel A. J. 2008. Collection of biological and non-biological particles by new and used filters made from glass and electrostatically charged synthetic fibres. Indoor Air; 18: 51–62.
Schäppi, Taylor, Pain, Cameron, Dent, Staff & Suphioglu. 1999. Concentrations of major grass group 5 allergens in pollen grains and atmospheric particles: implications for hay fever and allergic asthma sufferers sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Clin. & Exp. Allergy 29(5):633-641.
Forrige artikkel Neste artikkel